Escalating Tensions in the HoA. New Military Alliances and Ethiopia’s appetite for Conflict


The political landscape in the Horn of Africa is rapidly evolving, with Ethiopia's Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed at the center of a potentially explosive situation. His audacious strategies and appetite for risk, particularly regarding Ethiopia's port access project, are steering the region toward unprecedented instability.

Recent developments indicate a burgeoning military alliance between Somalia, Turkey, Eritrea, and Egypt. This coalition seems to be a direct response to Ethiopia's maneuvers, especially its memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Somaliland, a breakaway region in northern Somalia. Somalia's reaction to this could be drastic – a complete severance of diplomatic ties with Ethiopia and possibly an all-out war if Ethiopia doesn't retract the MoU.

The ramifications of these alliances and potential conflicts are profound. With Turkey poised to sign a defense cooperation agreement with Somalia in the coming weeks, and the prospect of Eritrea and Egypt establishing military bases in Northern Somalia, the region is on the brink of significant turmoil.

This situation puts Ethiopia in a precarious position. On one hand, Abiy's persistence with the port access project in Somaliland signals a strong commitment to his national ambitions. On the other, this stance risks not only alienating neighboring countries but also dragging the entire region into a complex web of military confrontations and alliances.

The potential for regional destabilization is high. With multiple nations involving themselves in the affairs of the Horn of Africa, the area becomes a hotbed for proxy conflicts, exacerbating existing tensions and creating new ones. The involvement of external powers like Turkey further complicates the situation, introducing new dynamics that could escalate conflicts beyond local disputes.

The Horn of Africa stands at a critical juncture. Ethiopia, under Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed's leadership, must carefully consider the repercussions of its actions on regional stability. The emergence of military alliances and the prospect of escalated conflicts underscore the urgent need for diplomatic engagement and restraint. The international community, particularly African nations, and global powers invested in the region's stability, should prioritize mediation and conflict resolution to avert a full-scale regional crisis.

The recent massive retaliatory strike by US and British forces against the Iranian-backed Houthis in Yemen adds a new dimension to the already complex regional dynamics in the Horn of Africa. This development might accelerate an alliance between the Houthis and Al Shabab, further complicating the geopolitical landscape. The prospect of such an alliance is alarming, as it could signify a new era of coordinated operations between these groups, potentially destabilizing the region even further.

In this volatile environment, the emergence of a military alliance between Somalia, Turkey, Eritrea, and Egypt is particularly significant. This coalition appears to be a strategic response to the shifting balance of power and the increasing external military interventions in the region. With Ethiopia’s ambitious maneuvers, especially concerning its dealings with the breakaway region of Somaliland, there's a palpable tension brewing between these neighboring nations.

The involvement of major global powers like the US and Britain in Yemen may expedite the potential union of the Houthis and Al Shabab, signaling a convergence of various conflicts, each with its deep-seated causes and implications. This convergence could lead to a more intricate web of alliances and enmities, deeply affecting the political and security landscape of the Horn of Africa.

As the situation unfolds, the international community must closely monitor these developments. The potential for a broader conflict, drawing in more regional players and global interests, underscores the need for diplomatic engagement and strategic caution. The Horn of Africa, with its history of complex conflicts and nationalistic fervor, stands at a crossroads where the actions of regional and global powers could either pave the way for stability or plunge the region into a deeper crisis.

Underestimating the strength of Somali nationalism has consistently proven to be unwise. Throughout history, the resilient spirit of Somali nationalism has consistently defied external assumptions and expectations. Rooted in a deep sense of cultural identity and political determination, this nationalism has been a driving force in shaping Somalia's destiny.

It has seen the nation navigate through colonialism, civil strife, and various geopolitical challenges. This unyielding national spirit often rises in the face of adversity, uniting Somalis across clans and regions. Underestimating this force not only overlooks a crucial aspect of Somali social and political life but also risks misjudging the nation's response to regional dynamics and international relations.

As Somalia enters new alliances and faces contemporary challenges, the enduring power of its nationalism remains a significant factor in influencing the country's path forward.

Ismail D. Osman: Former Deputy Director of the Somalia National Intelligence & Security Agency (NISA). Specializing in writings on Somalia, the Horn of Africa's security, and geopolitical landscapes with an emphasis on governance and security. Contact: Twitter: @osmando.

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